Scholarly consensus regarding the beginning of the Old Kingdom has shifted to earlier dates during the 20th century AD and is now placed in the 27th century BC.The first problem the student of Egyptian chronology faces is that the ancient Egyptians used no single system of dating, or consistent system of regnal years. The archeological record is incomplete, also (with relics and artifacts missing or destroyed). Bickerman, Chronology of the ancient world (1980: 83-84 and 106), has properly called it "the rather fluid chronology of the Pharaohs and the Hittites," adding that Ramses II's accession is dated by various Egyptologists to 1304, 1290-92, or 1279 BCE.Egyptian chronology is in a constant state of transition, with much of the terminology and dating in dispute. Archeologists may suggest solutions to ultimately settle many of these questions while others may last for eternity.Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! While the overwhelming majority of Egyptologists agree on the outline and many of the details of a common chronology, disagreements either individually or in groups have resulted in a variety of dates offered for rulers and events. The creation of a reliable chronology of Ancient Egypt is a task fraught with problems.The Hittites is the conventional English-language term for an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language and established a kingdom centered in Hattusa (the modern village of Boğazköy in north-central Turkey), through most of the second millennium BC.
While the overwhelming majority of Egyptologists agree on the outline and many of the details of a common chronology, disagreements either individually or in groups have resulted in a variety of dates offered for rulers and events.They had no concept of an era similar to Anno Domini, Anno Hajirae, or even the concept of named years like used in Mesopotamia.As a result, the chronologer is forced to compile a list of pharaohs, determine the length of their reigns, and adjust for any interregnums or coregencies.Reliable absolute dates, astronomical or other, are lacking, as Professor Heinrich Otten had noted.It is a "rubber chronology" that you can stretch or shrink anywhere, by arbitrarily established lengths of co-regencies between rulers and even overlapping dynasties.